Hamiltonian Functions

Base Class

class Hamiltonian(dimensions, vectors=None)

Class containing properties of the Hamiltonian.

Essentially wrapper for ndarray with additional attributes of dimensions and spins.

Usual methods (e.g. __setitem__ or __getitem__) access the data attribute.

Note

Algebraic operations with Hamiltonian will return ndarray instance.

Parameters

dimensions (array-like) – array of the dimensions for each spin in the Hilbert space of the Hamiltonian.

dimensions

array of the dimensions for each spin in the Hilbert space of the Hamiltonian.

Type

ndarray

spins

array of the spins, spanning the Hilbert space of the Hamiltonian.

Type

ndarray

vectors

list with spin vectors of form [[Ix, Iy, Iz], [Ix, Iy, Iz], ...].

Type

list

data

matrix representation of the Hamiltonian.

Type

ndarray

Total Hamiltonian

hamiltonian_wrapper(_func=None, *, projected=False)

Wrapper with the general structure for the cluster Hamiltonian. Adds several additional arguments to the wrapped function.

Additional parameters:

  • central_spin (float) – value of the central spin.

Parameters
  • _func (func) – Function to be wrapped.

  • projected (bool) – True if return two projected Hamiltonians, False if remove single not projected one.

Returns

Wrapped function.

Return type

func

projected_hamiltonian(bath, vectors, projections_alpha, projections_beta, mfield, others=None, other_states=None, energy_alpha=None, energy_beta=None, energies=None, projections_alpha_all=None, projections_beta_all=None)

Compute projected hamiltonian on state and beta qubit states. Wrapped function so the actual call does not follow the one above!

Parameters
  • bath (BathArray) – array of all bath spins in the cluster.

  • projections_alpha (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Projections of the central spin level alpha \([\braket{\hat{S}_x}, \braket{\hat{S}_y}, \braket{\hat{S}_z}]\).

  • projections_beta (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Projections of the central spin level beta. \([\braket{\hat{S}_x}, \braket{\hat{S}_y}, \braket{\hat{S}_z}]\)

  • mfield (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Magnetic field of type mfield = np.array([Bx, By, Bz]).

  • others (BathArray with shape (m,)) – array of all bath spins outside the cluster

  • other_states (ndarray with shape (m,) or (m, 3)) – Array of Iz projections for each bath spin outside of the given cluster.

  • energy_alpha (float) – Energy of the alpha state

  • energy_beta (float) – Energy of the beta state

  • energies (ndarray with shape (2s-1,)) – Array of energies of all states of the central spin.

  • projections_alpha_all (ndarray with shape (2s-1, 3)) –

    Array of vectors of the central spin matrix elements of form:

    \[[\bra{\alpha}\hat{S}_x\ket{j}, \bra{\alpha}\hat{S}_y\ket{j}, \bra{\alpha}\hat{S}_z\ket{j}],\]

    where \(\ket{\alpha}\) is the alpha qubit state, and \(\ket{\j}\) are all states.

  • projections_beta_all (ndarray with shape (2s-1, 3)) –

    Array of vectors of the central spin matrix elements of form:

    \[[\bra{\beta}\hat{S}_x\ket{j}, \bra{\beta}\hat{S}_y\ket{j}, \bra{\beta}\hat{S}_z\ket{j}],\]

    where \(\ket{\beta}\) is the beta qubit state, and \(\ket{\j}\) are all states.

Returns

tuple containing:

  • Hamiltonian: Hamiltonian of the given cluster, conditioned on the alpha qubit state.

  • Hamiltonian: Hamiltonian of the given cluster, conditioned on the beta qubit state.

Return type

tuple

total_hamiltonian(bath, vectors, mfield, zfs=None, others=None, other_states=None, central_gyro=- 17608.59705)

Compute total Hamiltonian for the given cluster including mean field effect of all bath spins. Wrapped function so the actual call does not follow the one above!

Parameters
  • bath (BathArray) – array of all bath spins.

  • mfield (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Magnetic field of type mfield = np.array([Bx, By, Bz]).

  • others (BathArray with shape (m,)) – array of all bath spins outside the cluster

  • other_states (ndarray with shape (m,) or (m, 3)) – Array of Iz projections for each bath spin outside of the given cluster.

  • zfs (ndarray with shape (3,3)) – Zero Field Splitting tensor of the central spin.

  • central_gyro (float or ndarray with shape (3,3)) – gyromagnetic ratio of the central spin OR tensor corresponding to interaction between magnetic field and central spin.

  • central_spin (float) – value of the central spin.

Returns

hamiltonian of the given cluster, including central spin.

Return type

Hamiltonian

Separate Terms

Documentation for the functions used to generate spin Hamiltonian for each cluster.

expanded_single(ivec, gyro, mfield, self_tensor, detuning=0.0)

Function to compute the single bath spin term.

Parameters
  • ivec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the bath spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • gyro (float or ndarray with shape (3, 3)) –

  • mfield (ndarray wtih shape (3,) – Magnetic field of type mfield = np.array([Bx, By, Bz]).

  • self_tensor (ndarray with shape (3, 3)) – tensor of self-interaction of type IPI where I is bath spin.

  • detuning (float) – Additional term of d*Iz allowing to simulate different energy splittings of bath spins.

Returns

Single bath spin term.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

dipole_dipole(coord_1, coord_2, g1, g2, ivec_1, ivec_2)

Compute dipole_dipole interactions between two bath spins.

Parameters
  • coord_1 (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Coordinates of the first spin.

  • coord_2 (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Coordinates of the second spin.

  • g1 (float) – Gyromagnetic ratio of the first spin.

  • g2 (float) – Gyromagnetic ratio of the second spin.

  • ivec_1 (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the first spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • ivec_2 (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the second spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

Returns

Dipole-dipole interactions.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

bath_interactions(nspin, ivectors)

Compute interactions between bath spins.

Parameters
  • nspin (BathArray) – Array of the bath spins in the given cluster.

  • ivectors (array-like) – array of expanded spin vectors, each with shape (3, n, n).

Returns

All intrabath interactions of bath spins in the cluster.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

bath_mediated(nspin, ivectors, energy_state, energies, projections)

Compute all hyperfine-mediated interactions between bath spins.

Parameters
  • nspin (BathArray) – Array of the bath spins in the given cluster.

  • ivectors (array-like) – array of expanded spin vectors, each with shape (3,n,n).

  • energy_state (float) – Energy of the qubit state on which the interaction is conditioned.

  • energies (ndarray with shape (2s-1,)) – Array of energies of all states of the central spin.

  • projections (ndarray with shape (2s-1, 3)) –

    Array of vectors of the central spin matrix elements of form:

    \[[\bra{i}\hat{S}_x\ket{j}, \bra{i}\hat{S}_y\ket{j}, \bra{i}\hat{S}_z\ket{j}],\]

    where \(\ket{i}\) are different states of the central spin.

Returns

Hyperfine-mediated interactions.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

conditional_hyperfine(hyperfine_tensor, ivec, projections)

Compute conditional hyperfine Hamiltonian.

Parameters
  • hyperfine_tensor (ndarray with shape (3, 3)) – Tensor of hyperfine interactions of the bath spin.

  • ivec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the bath spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • projections (ndarray with shape (3,)) –

    Array of vectors of the central spin matrix elements of form:

    \[[\bra{i}\hat{S}_x\ket{j}, \bra{i}\hat{S}_y\ket{j}, \bra{i}\hat{S}_z\ket{j}],\]

    where \(\ket{j}\) are different states of the central spin. If \(\ket{i} = \ket{j}\), produces the usual conditioned hyperfine interactions and just equal to projections of \(\hat{S}_z\) of the central spin state \([\braket{\hat{S}_x}, \braket{\hat{S}_y}, \braket{\hat{S}_z}]\).

    If \(\ket{i} \neq \ket{j}\), gives second order perturbation.

Returns

Conditional hyperfine interaction.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

hyperfine(hyperfine_tensor, svec, ivec)

Compute hyperfine interactions between central spin and bath spin.

Parameters
  • hyperfine_tensor (ndarray with shape (3, 3)) – Tensor of hyperfine interactions of the bath spin.

  • svec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the central spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • ivec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the bath spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

Returns

Hyperfine interaction.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

self_central(svec, mfield, zfs=None, gyro=- 17608.59705)

Function to compute the central spin term in the Hamiltonian.

Parameters
  • svec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the central spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • mfield (ndarray wtih shape (3,) – Magnetic field of type mfield = np.array([Bx, By, Bz]).

  • zfs (ndarray with shape (3, 3)) – Zero Field Splitting tensor of the central spin.

  • gyro (float or ndarray with shape (3,3)) – gyromagnetic ratio of the central spin OR tensor corresponding to interaction between magnetic field and central spin.

Returns

Central spin term.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

overhauser_central(svec, others_hyperfines, others_state)

Compute Overhauser field term on the central spin from all other spins, not included in the cluster.

Parameters
  • svec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the central spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • others_hyperfines (ndarray with shape (m, 3, 3)) – Array of hyperfine tensors for all bath spins not included in the cluster.

  • others_state (ndarray with shape (m,) or (m, 3)) – Array of Iz projections for each bath spin outside of the given cluster.

Returns

Central spin Overhauser term.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

overhauser_bath(ivec, position, gyro, other_gyros, others_position, others_state)

Compute Overhauser field term on the bath spin in the cluster from all other spins, not included in the cluster.

Parameters
  • ivec (ndarray with shape (3, n, n)) – Spin vector of the bath spin in the full Hilbert space of the cluster.

  • position (ndarray with shape (3,)) – Position of the bath spin.

  • gyro (float) – Gyromagnetic ratio of the bath spin.

  • other_gyros (ndarray with shape (m,)) – Array of the gyromagnetic ratios of the bath spins, not included in the cluster.

  • others_position (ndarray with shape (m, 3)) – Array of the positions of the bath spins, not included in the cluster.

  • others_state (ndarray with shape (m,) or (m, 3)) – Array of Iz projections for each bath spin outside of the given cluster.

Returns

Bath spin Overhauser term.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)

eta_hamiltonian(nspin, central_spin, alpha, beta, eta)

EXPERIMENTAL. Compute hamiltonian with eta-term - gradually turn off or turn on the secular interactions for alpha and beta qubit states.

Parameters
  • nspin (BathArray) – Array of the bath spins in the given cluster.

  • central_spin (float) – central spin.

  • alpha (ndarray with shape (2s+1,)) – Vector representation of the alpha qubit state in Sz basis.

  • beta (ndarray with shape (2s+1,)) – Vector representation of the beta qubit state in Sz basis.

  • eta (float) – Value of dimensionless parameter eta (from 0 to 1).

Returns

Eta term.

Return type

ndarray with shape (n, n)